C to U editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA involves the interaction of a multicomponent editing enzyme complex with a requisite RNA sequence embedded within an AU-rich context. This enzyme complex includes apobec-1, an RNA-specific cytidine deaminase, and apobec-1 complementation factor (ACF), a novel 65-kDa RNA-binding protein, that together represent the minimal core of the editing enzyme complex. The precise composition of the holo-enzyme, however, remains unknown. We have previously isolated an enriched fraction of S100 extracts, prepared from chicken intestinal cells, that displays apoB RNA binding and which, following supplementation with apobec-1, permits efficient C to U editing. Peptide sequencing of this most active fraction reveals the presence of ACF as well as GRY-RBP, an RNA-binding protein with ∼50% homology to ACF. GRY-RBP was independently isolated from a two-hybrid screen of chicken intestinal cDNA. GRY-RBP binds to ACF, to apobec-1, and also binds apoB RNA. Experiments using recombinant proteins demonstrate that GRY-RBP binds to ACF and inhibits both the binding of ACF to apoB RNA and C to U RNA editing. This competitive inhibition is rescued by addition of ACF, suggesting that GRY-RBP binds to and sequesters ACF. As further evidence of the role of GRY-RBP, rat hepatoma cells treated with an antisense oligonucleotide to GRY-RBP demonstrated an increase in C to U editing of endogenous apoB RNA. ACF and GRY-RBP colocalize in the nucleus of transfected cells and, in cotransfection experiments with apobec-1, each appears to colocalize in a predominantly nuclear distribution. Taken together, the results indicate that GRY-RBP is a member of the ACF gene family that may function to modulate C to U RNA editing through binding either to ACF or to apobec-1 or, alternatively, to the target RNA itself.