My clinical research interest is in pharmacogenetics, the study of genetic polymorphisms (variations in the genetic makeup) in drug-metabolizing enzymes and their translation into inherited differences in drug effects, i.e., efficacy and toxicity. Specifically, I am studying the pharmacogenetics of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The ultimate goal of my work is to help individualize treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases by providing information to predict therapeutic outcomes and avoid toxicities. Another area of interest is defining the role of inflammation in osteoporosis. I am studying osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis to elucidate the different risk factors, both genetic and non-genetic, which contribute to an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. I am also studying the adverse outcomes of the newer treatments used in rheumatoid arthritis, namely the biologic agents, with a particular focus on infection and malignancy.